Waves and Sound Printer Friendly Version
Resource Lessons

Vibration Graphs (prelude to Pendulum Lab)

Labs

Speed of Sound in Copper

Worksheets

Textbook Assignments

NextTime Questions

Vocabulary

 wave vw = fλ mechanical non-mechanical longitudinal radio waves vs sound waves damped heat compression rarefaction amplitude (pressure/density) point source frequency (f) hertz kilohertz megahertz vibration period (T) equilibrium position wavelength (λ) relationship between frequency and wavelength relationship between frequency and period human range of frequencies infrasonic ultrasonic intensity, decibels interference beats beat pitch beat frequency constructive destructive EPD in-phase, coherent sources antinodes (A) nodes (N) loops resonance forced vibration natural frequency properties of open pipes properties of closed pipes harmonics overtones standing waveform for an open water column reflection echo reverberation speed of sound (dry air) speed of sound increases with the medium'srigidity, temperature, humidity

Formulas

 vw = fλ d = rt sound level dB to power   take the difference in the decibels, divide that difference by 10,   relationship between the original sound levels equals 10x power intensity of sound (watts/m2) comparison of two intensity values sound level intensity (dB) threshold of human hearing (Io = 1 x 10-12 watts/m2) beats beat frequency = |f2 - f1|beat pitch = ½(f1 + f2) speed of sound in dry air vw = 331 + 0.6T open-closed pipe for the fundamental, A-N   Lpipe = ½ loop = ¼λ open-open pipe for the fundamental, A-N-A   Lpipe = 1 loop = ½λ EPD = |L1 - L2| constructive: mλ   m ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3, ....} destructive: ½(2m - 1)λ   m ∈ {1, 2, 3, ....} listener moving Δf / f = v / vw   approaching: f' = f + Δf   receding: f' = f - Δf source moving Δλ/λ = v / vw   approaching: λ' = λ - Δλ   receding: λ' = λ + Δλ

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